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Flora and Vegetation of Yunnan, Southwestern China: Diversity, Origin and Evolution 

作者: Zhu H
刊物名称: Diversity
论文题目英文: Flora and Vegetation of Yunnan, Southwestern China: Diversity, Origin and Evolution
年: Apr 2022
卷: 14
期: 5
页: 340
联系作者: Zhu H
影响因子: 2.465
摘要: Yunnan has a complicated geological history, a particular geography, and a complex topography, which have influenced the formation of various habitats of high biodiversity: 245 families; 2140 genera; 13,253 species and varieties of seed plants; more than 12 types of vegetation; and 167 plant formations, including tropical rain forests, tropical dry forests, subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, cold temperate coniferous forests, and alpine bushes and meadows. An analysis of the geographic elements to the current Yunnan flora shows that the tropical distribution contributed to 51% of all families and to 57.5% of all genera, of which the genera from the tropical Asian distribution make up the highest proportion among all geographical elements. During the late evolution of Yunnan, its flora was strongly affected by the tropical Asian flora. The complicated patterns and diversity in Yunnan flora and vegetation have been shaped mainly by its particular geological histories, which include the differential uplifts in topography, the clock-wise rotation of the Simao-Lanping geoblock, and the extrusion of the Indochina geoblock by the Himalayan uplift. The flora and vegetation of Yunnan were possibly derived from tropical-subtropical Tertiary flora before later diverging. Northwestern Yunnan flora likely evolved due to rapid speciation from families and genera from cosmopolitan and northern temperate distributions during the uplift of the Himalayas and climatic oscillations after the late Tertiary. Southern Yunnan flora likely evolved into tropical Asian flora following the southeastward extrusion of the Indochina block, which brought along tropical Asian elements. Central Yunnan flora inherited most of the elements of the Tertiary flora from East Asia. The formation and strengthening of the southwest monsoon by the uplift of the Himalayas was also a direct factor in the formation of the tropical rain forests found in southern Yunnan. The flora from southern and southeastern Yunnan also diverged, with the former being more closely related to Indo-Malaysian flora and the latter being more closely related to Eastern Asian flora. This floristic divergence is well supported by the geological history of these regions: that is, the tropical flora of southeastern Yunnan derived from the South China geoblock, whereas the flora of southern and southwestern Yunnan mainly derived from the Shan-Thai geoblock.
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